PART I: On Farms

Winter is no reason to justify confining farmed animals into sheds for months on hand. In fact, many farmed animals, if given the opportunity, will choose to spend some time outdoors during winter.  Even domestic chickens, whose ancestors decent from jungle fowl, may enjoy the outdoors on mild winter days.

Wilbur, the pig CETFA rescued from a trailer accident, on a first day of snow.

Wilbur, the pig CETFA rescued from a trailer accident, on a first day of snow.

However, when extreme cold, wind and/or cold and wet conditions hit, the well-being of the animals may be severely compromised unless adequate measures are taken. These measures can be categorized around 3 basic needs: food, water and shelter.



As temperatures drop, farmed animals need to increase the quantity of food they ingest to maintain their body temperature and condition – a requirement that increases even more if the animals are subjected to wet or windy conditions. Without appropriate quantities of food, they may use up all the energy they get from food to generate body heat, thus not having enough energy to maintain their body condition, they may suffer from hypothermia, and in severe cases, die. Providing enough food in the winter is therefore critical, and additional food should be provided to farmed animals when the temperatures drop.

Close attention should be paid to the particular nutritional needs of young, elderly or pregnant animals, who can suffer from cold stress/hypothermia more quickly. Supplements (vitamins, minerals, etc.) should be provided when needed to help maintain optimal health.

Ensuring proper nutrition for the animals all year long, and gradually increasing the quantities of food available as temperatures drop, are also practices essential to help animals cope with cold stress.

Unlike the commonly held belief, the best food to help ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats, etc.) effectively maintain body temperature is actually good qualify hay (or alfalfa), not corn. Minerals should also be provided, using for instance salt blocks for cows, and salt crumbles for sheep and goats. Photo:

Unlike the commonly held belief, the best food to help ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats, etc.) effectively maintain body temperature is actually good qualify hay (or alfalfa), not corn. Minerals should also be provided, using for instance salt blocks for cows, and salt crumbles for sheep and goats. Photo:


Water is a vital requirement all year long, but is of particular importance in the winter. In cattle, for example, it is indispensable to facilitate the digestion of heat-generating food. Without proper hydration, cows feed less and become more prone to hypothermia. They may also become constipated, or suffer from indigestion and/or colic.

It is often thought that large farmed animals are able to use snow as a source of water in the winter. While this is true to some extent, snow should never be the only source of water available. The potential of snow as a proper source of water depends on various factors, which may not be easily properly gauged and require regular close observation to determine the snow quantity and quality available. In addition, some farmed animals require large quantities of water per day. Left with snow alone as a source of water, these animals may spend too much of their time ingesting snow instead of feeding, all the while the snow lowers their temperature and increases their need for food, thus risking hypothermia. Therefore, snow should never be the only source of water available, and fresh, clean water should be provided in heated containers at all times, regardless of cost, to ensure it is kept free of ice.

Be very careful however, about the existence of stray voltage around the water trough. Stray voltage is a frequent problem on North American farms, and if no precautions are taken, animals may receive electrical shocks. These are not only painful, they may discourage animals from drinking, which could lead to dehydration and eventually death. Click here to learn more about stray voltage and corrective measures.

Pregnant, sick or young animals, as well as lactating animals, may have greater needs for water, and should be particularly closely monitored to ensure they do not get dehydrated.



It is often thought that some farmed animals, such as cattle or sheep, only need hedgerows, natural windbreaks or land features for winter protection. Although these species can handle cold better than others, they can also be at risk of cold stress or hypothermia during winter if they do not have proper protection from the weather. For instance, while the wool on the back of sheep may seem like good insulation from the cold, loads of wet snow on the back of sheep can part their wool, and the animals can get chilled and sick as a result. Cows also lose the insulation provided by their coat when their hairs become wet. Therefore, all farmed animals should have access to a shelter offering them protection from freezing temperatures, wind, snow, sleet, ice and rain, at all times.

Shelters requirements vary for each species, but all shelters must be big enough to allow all animals to be sheltered at once.  There should be enough room to move without stepping on each other and stand/lie down in natural positions, and should include bedding to help insulate animals from the cold grounds drawing heat away from the animals’ bodies. Extra-bedding in the form of a deep bed of straw is generally a must. In really cold weather, sheep, for instance, are not able to keep their lower limbs warm without a deep enough bed of straw.

In the winter, lactating cows are at great risk of painful frostbites of the teats. While damages are generally irreversible and may lead to the development of mastitis, rapid thawing of the frozen teat is thought to cause less pain to the animals than gradual thawing. Photo:

In the winter, lactating cows are at great risk of painful frostbites of the teats.  Photo:

Bedding should be kept clean and dry, to prevent irritation of the respiratory system through ammonia fumes, or the occurrence of bacterial and virus infections.  Shelters must be properly ventilated, but insulated enough to prevent drafts. Finally, snow should not be left to accumulate on shelter’s roofs as a too heavy layer of snow can cause barn roofs to collapse, as recently happened on several Alberta farms.

The areas surrounding the shelter should be kept mud free at all costs to avoid the development of hoof diseases (such as foot rot in cattle and sheep) or injuries due to slippery frozen surfaces, and to prevent mud from coating the animals’ hair (muddy hairs lose their insulating properties).

Paths between shelters, water troughs and feeding stations should also be made in the snow for chickens, to prevent them from getting frostbites when enjoying mild winter snowy days, or to help various animals walk on frozen grounds or hard-packed snow and prevent broken limbs. Various materials can be used, from gravel to sand, woodchips or sawdust, depending on the conditions and the species.


As an animal care taker:

–          Follow the recommendations above as minimum conditions necessary to ensure your animals fare well during winter. Read books or search the internet for additional information specific to each species.

–          Daily monitor all your animals closely, and take immediate action if you suspect one of them is suffering from cold stress. This may mean bringing the animal(s) inside, helping him/her get food and water, wrapping the animal in a blanket to warm him/her up (make sure that the blanket does not become wet or this will lead to hypothermia), and/or calling your veterinarian for help.

If you witness farmed animals suffering from cold stress:

–          Call your local SPCA, humane society and/or provincial department of agriculture.

Provide the date of your observations, time, temperature, location and details about the animals in distress.

–          If all else fails, contact your local RCMP detachment.

While few to no laws exist to protect farmed animals during their lives on farms, and the general attitude CETFA field investigators have experienced with law enforcement is that farmed animals do not matter, be polite but persistent: authorities have a great deal of discretionary power. In addition, while some of the recommendations provided above seem to be – and are – minimal and may not be legislated, even a widespread practice may be considered unlawful if it causes distress to animals and if it is unreasonable.

Part II: During transport

According to federal transport regulations, the Health of Animals Act, Part XII, Sections 143, (1)(d) and (e), “No person shall transport or cause to be transported any animal in a railway car, motor vehicle, aircraft, vessel, crate or container if injury or undue suffering is likely to be caused to the animal by reason of undue exposure to the weather or inadequate ventilation.” Yet, in Canada, farmed animals are routinely transported in the winter during subzero temperatures in inadequate conditions, and often during the coldest times of the day (early morning, night).

Although temperature extremes are common in Canada (read our article about heat stress), the transportation industry has yet to take proper measures to mitigate or prevent the risks such extremes cause to the animals, and equip their trucks with heating systems to maintain proper temperatures in the winter, and forced air to dissipate the moisture forming inside the trailer (and help animals cool in the summer heat). At present, Canadian trucks only have improper passive ventilation resulting from the movement of the vehicles, and often inadequate tarps (in the case of poultry trucks) or vent/porthole covers (in the case of livestock trailers). CETFA has also documented many instances where animals were transported in freezing temperatures with no tarps or covers whatsoever.

Animals transported in the winter in unheated, improperly ventilated trucks with inadequate, or absence of, tarps or covers are subjected to extremely low, and in some cases  lethal, temperatures due to the combination of cold temperatures and wind caused by the truck speed (wind chill effect) and blowing in through the sides. For example, a truck moving at 50 miles per hour when the outside air temperature is 20 degree F (-7 C) is analogous to a wind chill of -23 degrees F (-31 C) for the animals. If the truck is traveling against the wind, the wind chill effect is even greater. Animals forced to stand close to the sides of the trailers, or to the back, and exposed to cold winds due to the lack of proper protection from the ailments may suffer from hypothermia, get frostbites, freeze to the sides and even die.

While all farm animals can suffer from cold stress during transport, some are particularly susceptible. This is the case of pigs, shorn sheep, calving cows, young, sick and injured animals in general, as well as all poultry, during the transport of which hundreds, if not thousands of animals, may die (read our posts “Ontario poultry slaughterhouse found guilty of cruelty to animals” and “Lilydale charged for violations of the Health of Animals Act and Meat Inspection Act“).

Even when temperatures are milder, animal may still lose too much internal heat and die from hypothermia if freezing rain or snow blows into the truck and wet the animals. This is true for all animals, including cattle and sheep who lose insulation from their coat when it becomes wet.

While CETFA believes that animals should not be transported during temperature extremes, and that Canadian transport trucks should be retrofitted to include forced air and heating systems, we are calling on truckers to at the very least: 1) ensure that the animals’ fur or feathers are dry at the time of loading, and that they remain dry during transport; 2) provide sufficient bedding to help insulate the animals, and ensure that the bedding stays dry; 3) cover the openings of the trucks while ensuring the animals get adequate passive ventilation.; and 4) decrease the loading density per truck to give the animals enough room to move and re-position themselves inside the trailer to avoid freezing on its sides.


Some of the signs that farm animals may be suffering from cold stress during winter transport include:
–          Animals trembling or shivering or in the case of poultry, puffing up
–          Animals huddling together (pigs)
–          Animals eating bedding
–          Discolouration of the skin (pigs) – but be aware that signs of frostbite may sometimes not be visible for several  hours or even days
–          Lethargy, reluctance to move or get up, stiffness
–          Fluids frozen on the face or nostrils
–          Animals with wet fur or feathers

If you see farm animals transported in inadequate conditions or suffering from cold stress, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), the government body responsible for the enforcement of farm animal transport regulations, to report your concerns. Provide details of your observations (location, time of the day, name of the transport company, and D.O.T number printed on the rig, as well as the species transported, the outside temperature (and if possible wind chill) and the signs of cold stress you observe).

Remind the CFIA that livestock haulers are legally required to take reasonable steps to protect farm animals from severe weather and prevent unnecessary suffering, and urge them to enforce the regulations as they are mandated to do. Also, contact the trucking company involved and email us details of the incident.

As more and more people are becoming concerned about farm animals, public involvement will be instrumental in improving the welfare of farm animals during extreme weather conditions.

Contact information
Canadian Food Inspection Agency:
You can contact the CFIA at 1-800-442-2342 or through your local CFIA office (found in the blue pages of your telephone directory).
Untarped poultry trailer in cold and humid conditions, Manitoba.

Untarped poultry trailer in cold and humid conditions, Manitoba.

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